The choice of the city is due to its economic importance in the region and the number of establishments registered with the State Inspection Service SIE twenty in total under its coordination office ADAB, Notwithstanding, the choice of dairy is related to the fact that it is classified as medium-sized Bahia, and located in the municipality of the coordinating body. We have performed a technical visit to raise awareness around the theme of the project, during which we presented the CP and study proposals to the production manager. Subsequently, there were three more visits in the production period in order to allow greater contact with the manager, observing the productive environment and in order to apply the questionnaire.
We have produced a semi-structured questionnaire composed of 52 mixed character issues open and closed , and the interviewee could add comments, as needed. The questionnaire was organized in order to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on the characterization of the company; CP and Environmental Management and environmental aspects and impacts. With these data, it was our goal to map out the company profile, identifying practices, environmental aspects and impacts of its activities, as well as proposing improvements based on CP proposals.
In terms of environmental issues, it was intended to identify the existence of any environmental management programs, the company's intention to adopt environmental character techniques, the company's level of knowledge about the techniques and application of CP and knowledge of possible impacts of its activities and processes.
The data collected through the questionnaire were interpreted using descriptive analysis and use of figures and Chart, based on the literature, on the Technical Environmental Guide for the Dairy Products Industry CETESB, and in the handout of the Cleaner Production Program Implementation CNTL, , in order to identify the technical and CP opportunities in dairy and consequent suggestions for improvements. Based on Resolution No.
However, during periods of dry season it operates similarly to small dairy industries. In addition to these products, once per month the company produces cream cheese 21 kg ; and milk caramel sauce 70 liters. In regards to these last two products, the company said there was no physical conditions to produce them in large quantities. The dairy production system is based primarily on pre-sale, in which orders are made at the time of delivery of the previous supply and serves as input to the production schedule, made up to two days in advance.
However, for certain products that have a daily demand such as strawberry and plum yogurt, the company also prepares a demand forecast and adopts the minimum stock strategy.
comparative assessment of process technologies from a cleaner Cleaner Production leads to cleaner and sustainable products and services. With the introduction of cleaner production (CP), the quality and Cleaner Production Approaches for Sustainable Development. Conference Paper .. Sustainable technology as a basis of cleaner production. Article . An implemented framework to estimate manufacturing-related energy consumption in product design.
Due to the uncertainty of the volume of milk being received every day, there is a variation between the predicted amount of milk for processing and the real volume, sometimes forcing production to be adjusted and reprogrammed. In relation to the case file, the activities are initiated in the morning, running from Monday to Saturday and for 8 hours a day. That said, there is no specific day to produce each product, as this will depend on the applications and the expected demand.
They usually receive monthly visits from a health inspector of the regional headquarters in Itabuna ADAB , who provides guidance to the dairy, performs the collection of product samples and checks production data and controls. The environmental agency of the city also collects samples for analyzes of waste and effluents and the Federal Police inspects possible tampering using ammonia and caustic soda. The company said it had received no fine or warning from regulatory, health or environmental agencies until the date of this study.
During the technical visit for the presentation of CP and of the study objectives, the company's production manager said he did not know the existing CP techniques but was receptive and interested both in knowledge and in a possible application. Thus, in subsequent visits we have noticed his interest and provision to contribute to the research and consequent gains offered by the implementation of CP.
Later, on the second visit we have also observed an unawareness of other tools such as the Life Cycle Assessment. In regards to environmental management, the company knows the importance and existence of the Environmental Management System EMS but does not know its full contents. Moreover, we have punctuated the adoption of certain environmental practices, which will be presented in section 4.
There is not an environmental program structured in the company and in many cases it is unaware or has no clear application of an environmental tool. However, there is interest in knowing and applying practices and tools aimed at improving production processes and environmental protection. Still, the company believes it is possible to reduce the environmental impact with minimal investment with the implementation of environmental management tools, as well as obtaining advantages such as lower costs and better working environment. The company knows the risks related to food quality, environmental impact and safety.
Therefore, it owns a laboratory for quality control, a technical intern for job security who supports the company in the coordination of the issues of implementation of the guidelines of the standard NR12 safety at work around machinery and equipment and interest in adopting environmental practices. With the information provided by the dairy industry and from the CNTL and CETESB guidelines, we have elaborated a flowchart for the production processes Figure 1 and have carried out qualitative and quantitative analysis on the general aspects of production.
The first stage of the production process is the receipt of fresh milk, which can arrive either in isothermal tankers — bulk collection with capacity for 9, liters every four days on average and 50 liter buckets daily. Upon receipt, the quality control of raw materials is carried out, subjecting them to laboratory tests density, acidity, freezing point, fat, lactose and protein for approval or disapproval. The milk that arrives in tankers is connected directly to the line filter without passing through the sieve.
After filtering and cooling, the milk goes on to a centrifuge and passes through another line filter, following through to the production area. The cream will be pasteurized and matured in the maturation tank at a later stage, for the manufacture of butter. Once the manufacturing stages are through, the products are packaged, stored, cooled and shipped. Chart 2 shows the products and their respective raw materials and ingredients, packaging and main machines and equipment necessary for their production after maturation butter and storage in the buffer tank other products.
Notwithstanding, we have identified boilers, cooling towers, cooling systems in the finished products storage area and sanitary barrier as ancillary units to the production processes local hand hygiene and shoes as well as the entrance to the local production area. Storage of the raw material milk whenever performed is made in cooling tanks.
The ingredients are stored in a room at room temperature, on properly identified wooden pallets, except the yeast that is placed in the refrigerator. Both filling as transportation packaging are stored in a sanitized shed, and are arranged according to their frequency of use. As for the finished products, these are stored in a cold room and the company adopts FIFO first in-first out - the first products manufactured are the first to be shipped.
During the hygiene and cleaning processes, chlorinated water is used to wash the floor, machinery, pasteurizer, cheese vat and milk tanks. The company adopts the CIP Clean in Place procedure, internal cleaning of a piece of equipment without relocation or disassembly, and use alkalizing caustic soda and acid detergent, and as sanitizer they use paraseptic acid. For the cleaning of surfaces such as vats, cheese Chart, yogurt table, yogurt maker, mixer and table butter the company uses a slightly alkaline detergent, sanitizer and hand wash.
The buckets, on the other hand are sanitized and cleaned with a slightly alkaline detergent and vaporized water. The floor are washed with a hose, which in the morning is used to remove the larger residues and at the end of production, a neutral detergent is used. In terms of the conservation status and maintenance of machines and equipment, the company performs preventive maintenance based on the schedule provided by the machine suppliers and which depends on each type of equipment, as well as corrective maintenance which aims at acting quickly on potential leakage problems during the operation.
In both cases, there are two employees responsible for the performance of these activities. In regards to the production environment, the company provides training and promotes the awareness of the staff about the use of Personal Protective Equipment PPE.
However, according to the production manager, there is no specific action in the company procedures that seeks to monitor, minimize or avoid noise generation and vibrations. This could be seen at the time of the visit, when we identified that the production environment was very noisy, often causing fatigue and discomfort when the protective equipment was removed.
The main cause of noise generation was assigned to a pasteurizer which is located within the production area. The lack of ventilation was another aspect observed in the manufacturing environment because the installed exhaust fans were not enough to control the heat.
Furthermore, because of the relative isolation of the location, due to hygiene and food safety reasons, machine noise was amplified and the internal temperature was elevated. Measures, such as the use of water from the yogurt maker, formerly used in the production environment and thus contributing to its increase in temperature, resulted in a decrease in ambient temperature but this was not enough. The flow of people, materials and products was slightly confusing because there were many plastic boxes for bagged milk packaging kept in the production environment, which often prevented the visibility of all processes and in some cases, hindered the transit operators.
On the other hand, in terms of the general physical aspect of the processing site, the state of conservation of walls and floors and the use of safety equipment were essential elements and should be considered satisfactory.
The main source of dairy water supply is the municipal service but the company also uses secondary sources such as artesian wells and rainwater. Rainwater falling from the roof is collected through gutters and pipes and stored in two fiber tanks with 10, liters capacity each, used in the boiler and in the cooling tower.
In turn, water from the municipal service is used in manufacturing products and internal washing of the machines; water from the well is used to wash the floors. In addition, the dairy industry has no control over or program on water consumption, despite the adoption of certain practices such as use of rainwater and reuse of water in the yogurt maker to wash the floors.
Still, according to the production manager, the adoption of certain practices is related to the level of interest in innovation of products and processes, resulting in the reduction of certain costs. The main source of electric power supply to the dairy is the external electricity supply from private power service companies, and the average consumption of the last twelve months was KWh.
Moreover, the main source of thermal power generation is the boiler which in turn is powered by wood from the reforestation of eucalyptus. The average amount of wood used is 64 m 3 and lasts on average 30 to 40 days. The machines that consume electricity the most are the pasteurizer and the yogurt maker but the company does not account for how much is consumed.
In addition, the company has not felt the need to apply awareness actions about consumption rationing in the company, so that the dairy turns off its machines from 6 to 9 pm only to meet the arrangements with a contractual party from the electric power supply company. When fresh milk is not approved during the reception and laboratory analysis stages, it is returned to the producer but if the milk that has been processed and bagged suffers any damages on its packaging or in the milk itself, it will be discarded. Laboratory effluents as chlorides, silver nitrate, alkaline and acid solutions are poured into the laboratory sink, which in turn goes into the treatment and sewage system.
In contrast, discarded sulfuric acid is packaged in gallons and then goes into the tank for neutralization. There is a wastewater treatment system which removes excess of organic products, mostly fat and then discards them into the sewage system. All effluents go to the treatment plant, except for sewage coming from the bathroom which goes straight to the municipal sewer system and for the whey that is donated to animal feed.
The company has considered using the whey for dairy drinks, for which there is a study and project design. However, it was not put into practice yet due to the belief that it would be necessary to create a new production line and a new brand to differentiate the dairy drinks from the yogurts.
In addition, the company said it was conducting a feasibility study because the serum volume is variable and in harvest periods there is an excess of whey, while during off-season periods, its amount is reduced. For the production of unripe cheese for example, in September the company required 19, liters of milk and at the time of preparation alone has generated approximately 10, liters of whey.