Golf club heads The first application to be found was as golf club heads. Higher strength-to-weight ratio allows mass to be distributed differently, enabling various shapes and sizes of head. In , a subsidiary was established to make clubs, Liquidmetal Golf, with heads. High production costs e. Making the case for consumer electronics Vitreloy can also yield stronger, lighter, and more easily molded casings for personal electronic products.
But, again, costs became a problem. Manufacturing process limitations, higher-than-expected production costs, unpredictable customer adoption cycles, short product shelf-life, and intense pricing pressures have made it difficult to compete profitably in this commodity-driven market, explains chairman and CEO John Kang. Processes are not yet refined to the point that we can cost-effectively manufacture pricesensitive, commodity products.
Our core competency is alloy development. The company is now focusing on manufacturing select, higher-margin cell phones mainly for Samsung and value-added sports and medical products, as well as development and prototyping. Rather than manufacture itself, Liquidmetal Technologies is pursuing funded strategic partnerships, technology licensing, joint development, and product distribution relationships for more rapid and effective commercialization of new products.
An agreement with Sony to develop a casing for digital still cameras has also been established. Liquidmetal Technologies is also working with design firm Ideo to create a Vitreloy-encased laptop that rolls up like a piece of paper. Liquidmetal rebounds Liquidmetal Technologies is targeting leisure equipment that requires good rebound. Orbiting the Lagrange point, Genesis is expected to capture g of solar wind particles and ions using five, 1 m diameter circular passive collector arrays.
Once the collectors are back on Earth, acid etching techniques developed at the University of Zurich will be used to dissolve the surfaces evenly, allowing captured ions to be released layer by layer.
Higher-energy ions blast further into the surface. This allows us to test proposals that [higher-energy ions] differ in composition from the solar wind, says Don Burnett, Caltech principal investigator and team leader. Vitreloy in four areas of the frame. Other potential applications in sporting goods include fishing equipment, hunting bows, guns, scuba gear, marine applications, and bicycle frames.
Vitreloy can also be used for watch cases to replace Ni and other metals, which can cause allergic reactions, and jewelry. Medical applications As well as industrial powders and smooth, hard coatings, Vitreloy has a highly biocompatible, nonallergenic form, which is ideal for corrosion- and wear-resistant medical applications. For example, DePuy Orthopaedics, Inc. Other applications include pacemaker casings. In , Surgical Specialties began producing ophthalmic scalpel blades using Vitreloy.
They are higher quality but less expensive than diamond, sharper and longer lasting than steel, and more consistently manufacturable, since they are produced from a single mold with microscale casting accuracy ready for use. Other edged tool applications include knives and razor blades. Defense and aerospace Liquidmetal Technologies has received a series of contracts from the DoD to develop military materials that are stronger, lighter, and more effective at high temperature and stress. These can replace depleted uranium penetrators in antitank armor-piercing projectiles because of their similar density and self-sharpening behavior.
Hufnagel of The Johns Hopkins University. The company is also finalizing a Small Business Innovative Research contract with the US Navy on casings for lightweight fragmentation bombs. The cover of the canister contains one collector array and the body of a stack of four arrays that can be rotated out when the spacecraft begins its orbit. Cheaper, easier manufacturing There are good prospects for BMG materials whose properties favor easier, cheaper processing for more common-place applications.
For example, a five-year project funded by the Japanese government between Inoue Supercooled Liquid Glass Project reported the first bulk glassy alloy with tensile strength over 2 GPa higher than that for Mg-, Pd-, and Zr-based alloys with distinct plastic elongation in a less expensive Cu-based alloy system.
This high-strength alloy can be formed by Cu mold casting Anomalies in the Cu-Zr-Ti alloy include: High glass-forming ability despite a small supercooled liquid region before crystallization, enabling easier casting compared with alloys with less glass-forming ability; A combination of high strength and ductility, even in a mixed structure of glassy and nanoscale crystalline or quasicrystalline precipitates in the as-cast state, without subsequent annealing steps.
Inoue is now leading a five-year project on metallic glasses funded by the Japanese New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, which will be completed in April This promising work, together with developments in the US and Europe, greatly improves the prospects for the discovery of new BMGs with properties that will enable practical manufacturing. In turn, this is likely to open up a new sphere of potential applications.
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Spaepen, F. Kato, H. JIM 38, ; Conner, R. Kim, C. Forum , 43 Conner, R. Mater Res. Hays, C. Khn, U. He, G. In the DMA experiment, a sinusoidal time-varying strain controlled deformation is applied to the sample:. For most polymers due to the viscoelastic nature both viscous component and an elastic component there is a phase lag due to the contribution of the viscous component:.
DMA is useful for measuring the modulus both below and above the glass transition temperature Tg as well as measuring Tg and the breadth of the glass transition.
Shown below is a typical DMA curve. Where tan d is the ratio of the loss and storage moduli:. This is actually how a lot of creep tests are done and it is stillcommon to find polymer manufacturers with a room full of parts under load that arebeing watched. This checks not only the polymer but also the design of the part.
More accurately representative samples of polymer can be tested for creep. Thesample is loaded with a very low stress level, just enough to hold it in place, andallowed to stabilize. The testing stress is then applied very quickly, with instanta-neous application being ideal, and the changes in the material response are recorded These two tests are often cycled.
Holding a sample at a set length, the change in stress as afunction of time or temperature is recorded. The material is then held at this stress for a period of time until thematerial reaches equilibrium. We can use creep tests in two ways: to gain basic information about the polymeror to examine the polymer response under conditions that approximate real use. Com-pliance is the willingness of the material to deform and is the inverse of modulus foran elastic material. However, for a viscoelastic material this is not true and a Lapacetransform is necessary to make that conversion.
Wecan determine this region for creep—recovery by running a series of tests on different 10 lbs. Note theidealized strain curve shows distinct regions of behavior related to i the initial deformation, ii a transition zone, iii the equilibrium region, and iv the recovery region. A third way to estimate the linear region is to run the curve at twostresses and add the curves together, using the Boltzmann superposition principle,which states the effect of stresses is additive in the linear region.
So if we look at the 3 mN 2. One can look for the region where the equilibrium region showsno flow as a function of time or where the stress—strain relationship ceases being linear. Once we have determined the linear region,we can run our samples within it and analyze the curve. This does not mean you can-not get very useful data outside this limit, but we will discuss that later.
Creep experiments can be preformed in a variety of geometries, depending onthe sample, its modulus or viscosity, and the mode of deformation that it would beexpected to be seen in use. Shear, flexure, compression, and extension are all used. The extension or tensile geometry will be used for the rest of this discussion unlessotherwise noted. The creep—recov-ery curve can also be looked at as a combination of springs elastic sections anddashpots viscous sections.
It alsocontinues to deform as long as it is stressed, for the dashpot continues to respond. So despite the fact the Maxwell model works reasonably well as a representation ofstress—strain curves, it is inadequate for creep. The Voigt—Kelvin model with the spring and the dashpot in parallel is the nextsimplest arrangement we could consider. This arrangement of thespring and dashpot gives us a way to visualize a time-dependent response as theresistance of the dashpot slows the restoring force of the spring.
In order to address these problems, we can continue the combination of dashpotsand springs to develop the four-element model. This combining of the various dash-pots and spring is used with fair success to model linear behavior. This curve shows the same regionsas seen in real material, including a small instantaneous region, a leveling off ofthe equilibrium region, and a realistic recovery curve.
We can use the four-elementmodel to help us understand the strain curve. We can also add additional elementsif needed to adjust the behavior and tie it back to structural units. This is a commonapproach and Shoemaker et al. For example, they assigned the independent spring to icecrystals, the independent dashpot to butterfat, and the Voigt elements to stabilizergels, air cells, and fat crystals. Neither the Maxwell a nor the Voigt model b work well to explain creep. The four-element model c does a betterjob.
More complex models exist.